Frequently asked questions: essential reading

To provide direction and improve clarity some recurring questions have been identified and answered. I would suggest that from time to time you revisit the frequently asked questions.

Please Note: Studying the FAQs will increase your understanding and save time.


Q: Does marketing have a structure?

YES: It is rare for a student not to understand the content of the e-book. If there are difficulties it is visualising how all the content comes together as one. An ability to visualise the structure of marketing will enhance learning and save time.

When planning the e-book – marketing concepts and theories were mapped into a network of associations and organised into related conceptual groups [an ‘associative network’] with the objective of replicating the way marketing practitioners – think and act.

After considerable reader feedback, a 3 section structure was selected. You may have noticed that the structure is reflected in the title of the e-book.

The marketing concept: philosophy, theory, & application [e-book].

Therefore, the philosophy section would introduce and explain characteristics of the marketing concept, discuss how marketing is evolving, and identify the objectives of marketing practitioners; the theory section examines the exchange process between the consumer and the organisation; and then, in section 3, detail how a marketing philosophy and marketing theory could be applied in a logical and structured manner.

This would enable students to complete sections 1&2 in their introductory marketing unit and to complete section 1,2,& 3 in the capstone marketing unit. Importantly, this structure would meet the requests of former students to have one comprehensive and seamless marketing reference.

Given the title and structure it is appropriate to discuss the relationship between marketing concepts and marketing theories. Concepts and theories are rarely defined in academic literature and therefore are often unintentionally employed incorrectly and inconsistently (Green, 2013; Hunt 2015).

Concepts and theories are similar, however, there are important differences. Understanding the relationship between concepts and theories and how they are employed in this treatise will reduce unnecessary confusion.

Concepts and theories are mutually dependent; both are informed explanations of a subject, have a specific language, however, concepts are a qualitative general statement, whereas a theory is a quantitative measurement and prediction of a specific outcome that may be inferred within a concept (Green, 2013 & Imeda, 2014). Although the role of theory in academic research is well accepted, the relationship between concepts and theories and the value when combined is often overlooked. Marketing concepts may enhance research when employed to provide a conceptual umbrella for marketing theory (Ritter, 2020).

Concepts are generally applicable, focus on what is common, qualitative in nature and their value is that they provide holistic guidance. A concept is an informed explanation, an organisation of ideas, an abstract picture: a concept provides the principles, the language, a conceptual framework and, therefore, provides the building blocks for logical thought, understanding, discussion and further research of a topic (Tulving, 2000b; Wacker, 2008; Imenda, 2014).

Theories are context specific and quantitative in nature, variables and relationships must be identified and factored, and their value is that they help to predict a likely outcome. Moreover, a theory should have established variables, a research methodology, definitions of terms, a specific context, known variables and a set of hypothesis that have been tested [or can be tested in the future], and a predictable/expected outcome (Alderson, 1957; Bagozzi, 1974;1979; Hunt, 1976; 1983; 2015; Wacker, 1998; 2008; Imenda, 2014). A theory is predictive and explains how ‘specific relationships lead to specific events’ (Wacker, 1998, p. 364). “Good theory” explains and measures the “Who? What? When? Where? How? Why? and precisely what Would, Should, or Could Happen?” and can only be investigated after a conceptualisation of the theory (Wacker, 2008, p.7).

The following quotes provide a glimpse of the theory literature.

Quote: a theory is a set of propositions which are consistent among themselves and which are relevant to some aspect of the factual world. (Alderson, 1957, p.5)

Quote: Calling any set of relationships a theory does not make it theory (Wacker, 2008, p.7).

Quote: the study of theory is the most practical intellectual pursuit of anyone seriously interested in studying market research (Hunt, 2015, p.3).

Quote: Theories are systematically related sets of statements, including some law-like generalizations, that are empirically testable. The purpose of theory is to increase scientific understanding through a systematized structure capable of both explaining and predicting phenomena. (Hunt, 2015, p.173 citing Rudner, 1966).

Author’s comment: Whilst in academic conversations the term theory is employed as a set of hypotheses to be scientifically tested – in everyday conversations the term ‘theory is often employed as if it was a hunch, an idea ‘I have a theory about …’ and to suggest something should happen but may not [i.e., the expression ‘theoretically speaking’]

In simple terms concepts are informed answers to ‘what questions’ (Tulving, 2000b, p.33), they are the building blocks of logical thought. Therefore: When a marketing scholar:

  • Provides an holistic explanation of marketing this refers to the marketing concept
  • Explains an individual marketing topic – this refers to a marketing concept
  • Explains several marketing topics – this refers to marketing concepts.


Q: What is a marketing genre?

Marketing as an academic discipline has considerable breadth and depth. If we explore marketing in broad terms we are exploring the general theory of marketing and if we explore a specific area of marketing to a significant depth we are generally exploring a genre of marketing [e.g., wine marketing, services marketing retail marketing, sport marketing, destination marketing … etc]

Therefore, marketing could be considered as one broad discipline including a number of deep marketing genres. Moreover, the appropriate theory would depend on the context. See the post: general V specific structure of marketing

Marketing genres are important – what may be an effective marketing strategy, tactic, practice in one genre may be less effective in another. It is also important to highlight that a marketing practitioner should be capable of moving from one genre to another. Within any marketing genre [e.g., the retail marketing genre] there will be particular situational factors that marketing practitioners must consider [e.g., grocery shopping and clothing shopping]. To better research their situational factors – marketing practitioners, generally, drill-down and create marketing sub-genres; a sub-genre will have similarities with the marketing genre, however, there are also factors that require special attention. There are also organisations that belong to a marketing genre and a marketing sub-genres, however, their situation is such that they could be considered as operating within a marketing niche.

Academic marketing journals often focus on a marketing genre.

Q: Who are the readers of the marketing concept [e-book]?

The readers of the e-book [i.e., what marketers refer to as the ‘target market’] are:

  • Current marketing students who need broad knowledge delivered in an effective and efficient manner. Students range from first year students to post graduate students.
  • Marketing graduates who are now employed and wish to refresh their knowledge and skills in marketing [hence why the e-book is freely available]
  • Marketing academics who wish to include a contemporary and free reference textbook in their reading list – many students require access to free quality resources
  • Business-people who wish to gain a greater insight into the world of marketing

Q: As a current marketing student am I expected to remember everything in the e-book?

No! That would be impossible. The e-book is primarily a well organised literature review – a reference – an organised collection of what the best marketing minds are saying.

Q: As a current marketing student am I expected to undertake further readings?

It is recommended that you read further.

Although the e-book is comprehensive – further reading is recommended. There is no claim that this is the definitive marketing textbook or that it would cover every student’s specific area of interest. To respect your time, suggested further readings are provided at the end of each section. Some may wish to study a marketing genre, marketing niche, or a specific topic in greater depth. As an enthusiastic marketing lecturer I would love to see people undertaking further reading, however, I have to be realistic and recognise that the majority of students will have stiff demands on their time and, therefore, will set priorities regarding what further reading they are able to undertake.

It is suggested that if a student is undertaking an academic project that they primarily focus on peer reviewed marketing journals.

Q: I am a first-year commerce student the e-book is very comprehensive; do I have to study the entire e-book?

For an introduction to marketing I would suggest that section 1 and 2 are suitable. If you are in one of your final units in a marketing major then sections 1, 2, and 3 are suggested.

However, the exact answer to your question will vary depending on several factors. The e-book is free and freely available [tens of thousands have been downloaded]. Therefore, it may depend on where you are studying the unit. I would suggest that you consult your lecturer and/or study the unit learning plan for your particular unit and institution. However, the amount of reading will also vary according to the characteristics of the reader – motivation, available time, interest, and learning style.

Let me explain in more detail. The e-book was designed and developed to ‘grow’ with the student/reader. That means, initially, to provide an overview of the philosophy of marketing and the theory of marketing, and then, with time and marketing knowledge, progress to the application of the philosophy and theory of marketing through the CADDIE business-marketing planning process.

For post-graduate students with business experience this knowledge can be achieved in a much shorter time span.

Q: Why one e-book rather than two?

Sure – there are a few problems with containing all the information in one book; however, there are greater problems with dividing the information into two books.

Let me explain in more detail. Most introductory marketing textbooks focus on marketing theory; generally, introductory marketing textbooks are at a very basic level. As a consequence introductory marketing textbooks are generally unsuitable for students who will only complete one marketing unit in their business degree or are studying one marketing unit at a post-graduate level. Consider the scenario of a business graduate entering the workforce who has only a basic understanding of marketing and the only source of reference is basic marketing textbook – clearly this person is at a disadvantage. Furthermore, basic marketing textbooks have breadth but insufficient depth for marketing graduates and business-people who are interested in improving/refreshing their understanding of the philosophy, theory, and application of marketing [they want the information in one location].

Generally, the final unit in a marketing major will focus on marketing strategy and tactics; this requires the reader to have a comprehensive marketing knowledge. Strategic marketing textbooks generally assume that the reader has a good understanding of the philosophy and theory of marketing, however, this is not always the case. Most students believe that their knowledge of previous units is better than is the case. Strategic marketing textbooks often restrict the student’s ability to quickly refresh their knowledge on a particular topic.

Therefore, to meet the needs of all readers, the marketing concept [e-book] needed to be both an introductory marketing text and an applied marketing text rather than two separate textbooks.

Q: Is there bias in the marketing concept e-book?

Yes but steps have been taken to minimise bias.

Although the content of the e-book is comprehensive it is only a sample of available marketing literature and in the process of selecting [and rejecting] some bias is unavoidable. However, the e-book is not fiction – it is a synthesis of the best academic scholars and articles. The intellectual contribution of the author is collecting and analysing [making sense] and presenting the material in a logical sequential manner.

Q: Are all of the theories outlined in the e-book applicable to all organisations?

No. The e-book is generalist in nature.

A classic view of a marketing theory is that it is a method of identifying, exploring and making sense of a phenomena (Hunt, 1976). It would be impossible to cater for all genres, niches, contingencies; situational factors [customers, organisations, markets, products]. Therefore, when designing and developing marketing strategy and tactics a great deal of consideration and consultation is needed. Also, sometimes an ‘ideal theory’ is presented, however, in the real world ‘ideal theories’ are not always possible to implement, nevertheless, it is important to be aware of the variety of strategic options available to marketing practitioners. Keep in mind in marketing – there are often exceptions.

Q: What was the selection process for information?

The e-book is a synthesised collection of the classic and contemporary ideas of leading marketing scholars and practitioners. To make learning easier – marketing concepts were mapped into a network of associations and organised into related groups. The goal of mapping an ‘associative network’ was to replicate the way that marketing practitioners – think.

Previously, we discuss ‘the marketing concept’, ‘a marketing concept’ and ‘marketing concepts’. Differentiating between concept types is important. Some marketing concepts have greater breadth and depth than others, clearly, there is a hierarchy of marketing concepts in the selection process these were categorised as:

  • Giga-marketing concept: At the highest level, is ‘the marketing concept’ – in a holistic sense this holistically explains marketing as a discipline and practice – giga identifies the ‘the marketing concept’ encompasses all other [mega and milli] marketing concepts.
  • Mega-marketing concepts: At the next level, are three mega-marketing concepts that group/organise interacting milli-concepts – the concepts that marketing practitioners consider when considering a situation. The e-book arranges mega-marketing concepts as:
    • The buyer decision process
    • The total product
    • The circle of satisfaction
  • Milli-marketing concepts: At the lowest level, are the individual marketing concepts that relate to specific areas of marketing [e.g., product life cycle]. Generally, milli-marketing concepts interact with other milli-marketing concepts and are grouped into a mega-marketing concept.

Q: How up to date is the information?

Perhaps it is better to think in terms of relevance rather that date of publication.

Throughout the e-book, we explore the classic ideas of marketing – the ideas that have been accepted and practiced over many years and are the foundations of marketing thought. The classic ideas, generally, propagated a new way of thinking and the catalyst for a new era of academic marketing knowledge and industry practice.

There is a tendency to ignore the classics – to see them as ‘past their use by date’, however, classic articles provide a special insight – particularly when we explore a classic idea and consider the situational factors of the time, reflect on the wisdom within the article, and then reconsider the wisdom in a modern context [situational factors].

However, situational factors change and marketing thought is continually evolving; therefore, contemporary marketing  ideas have also been identified, collected, analysed, and organised within the e-book. Most often contemporary ideas are part of an ongoing investigation into a specific area of marketing; generally, they build on and advance the original ideas of other scholars. However, some of the ideas that are discussed in the e-book have originated outside of the traditional marketing literature. They have been introduced because they are well accepted and consistent with the marketing concept and a marketing philosophy.

Q: I am a post-graduate student and I have noticed that marketing terminology across the marketing literature is inconsistent – how have you dealt with inconsistency?

It is true marketing scholars and practitioners often use different marketing terminology for what is essentially the same idea. There are many reasons why this happens.

Let me explain in more detail. Although, the need for consistency in marketing terminology has received some attention in the marketing literature, it is likely to be an unachievable aspiration. Inconsistency in past literature exists and, therefore, inevitable in future academic publications [as future research will cite and build on the foundations of previous research]. Therefore the marketing terminology in an original article is often respected and passed on through subsequent articles. Adding to this dilemma is that marketing scholars generally adopt the marketing language consistent with their marketing genre – therefore, different genres may approach what is essentially the same topic from different perspectives. Inconsistency also happens when more than one marketing scholar is researching the same phenomenon at the same time. Also, sometimes an idea is represented in a journal and it gains a great deal of attention and elaboration; consequently it is applied beyond the original context.

What is also often overlooked is that ideas are global and marketing scholars, obviously, speak languages other than English; therefore, the work of a particular scholar may have been considered in one language, then interpreted and translated, and in the process it may stray from the original author’s intentions.

Inconsistent terminology may be a challenge that experienced marketing scholars can accommodate, however, when the reader has less experience, inconsistent terminology creates reader confusion and hinders the learning process. Therefore, to reduce reader confusion and enhance learning a number of tactics have been employed within the e-book, for example:

  • Employ a standard marketing language – wherever possible
  • Replace multiple marketing terms with the most accurate/common contemporary term
  • Present a contemporary perspective on classic marketing concepts
  • Identify, synthesise, and group co-dependent marketing concepts
  • Conflicting academic and industry opinions are discussed
  • Clarification through a series of ‘author’s comments’ when there may be confusion
  • Elaboration on areas where student confusion is common

Q: What is the relationship between e-book and

The marketing concept [e-book] is the primary source of information for students and can be downloaded from However, other information is also available – the objective is to augment the e-book and flip the class:

  • Modules: Within the web-site are the e-book modules; these are not a substitute for reading the e-book. Modules provide an important function for those that cannot attend class or a particular class – modules provide the slides that are employed in-class and a summary of the in-class discussion.
  • Activities: Within the e-book there are a number of activities employed to promote thought and discussion. Some activities can be employed as assessments or examples of past assessments.
  • Exemplars: There are also a number of exemplars which are employed to provide an example of a concept, to elaborate on a concept, or to introduce an iconic product or organisation. The exemplars have been selected to provide an international perspectives. But please don’t fall into the trap of thinking they are travel stories. The e-book will link you to the appropriate modules, activities, and exemplars.

Q: Why are there acronyms that are unique to the e-book?

Literature reviews of a topic can be quite overwhelming, and given time constraints, acronyms and mnemonics such as COMP and CADDIE are employed to help synthesise a topic, to aid holistic recall, and to assist with an exploration of the elements. This should not be interpreted as being disrespectful to other academics.

Q: What is a marketing vignette?

Within the e-book there are a number of marketing vignettes. A vignette is a short story that provides an example and often a moral; I have employed vignettes to link content and context. They are designed to provide everyday examples that assist a reader to relate what they already know – to the theory of marketing.

Q: Why have you included metaphors?

As you progress through the e-book you will discover a number of conceptual marketing metaphors. Marketing scholars and practitioners often employ metaphors to enhance the understanding of a concept by relating a new idea to a more commonly understood idea. Metaphors help shape the way we perceive an idea and learn. It is worthwhile to take time to consider the implications of the conceptual marketing metaphors.

Interestingly, a number of former students have provided feedback that they find conceptual metaphors helpful when conducting staff professional development seminars.

 Q: I have noticed that sometimes the e-book contradicts itself, why is that?

It is not so much a contradiction, as pointing out that marketing scholars often present different opinions in the marketing literature – this is unavoidable – opinions are subjective and may vary between marketing scholars – also situational factors vary and different opinions should motivate readers to consider theories and concepts within the context in which they were written.

Q: I have noticed that sometimes the e-book repeats itself, why is that?

Repetition is annoying [including for the author] but very necessary.

As the e-book, will be read for learning [not pleasure], and history suggests it will be read weekXweek or maybe just a module here and there – repetition is needed to re-introduce and reinforce important and related information. Also, when undertaking assessments many students employ the ‘search’ function, with this in mind I have written the e-book to provide students with a few related hints and help them to provide a richer demonstration of learning.

Q: What factors impact consumption?

Although marketing genres and sub-genres highlight the similarities and differences that organisations may encounter; it should also be recognised that each business is impacted by a set of situational factors.

To gain a clearer picture – the author undertook an extensive review of the marketing literature, including academic journals, popular business publications, marketing textbooks, and the annual reports of selected organisations. Further research was undertaken to observe and record the behaviour of consumers and to conduct interviews with consumers, business-people, and marketing practitioners.

The research revealed that, although the situational factors [i.e., COMP factors] varied greatly between organisations, and the operational marketing objectives were specific to the organisation, the holistic marketing objectives of organisations are quite consistent. The situational factors influence every consumer and every organisational decision. As every consumer and organisation is unique, to some extent, and as situational factors are constantly evolving/changing, the situational factors could be considered as unique and dynamic.

What is important to recognise is how past and present situational factors have influenced organisational performance; this knowledge will assist an organisation to better predict/forecast future situational factors. The more accurately an organisation can forecast the future situational factors the better they can plan and manage.

The future situational factors may be as expected, however, often the emergent situational factors are unexpected and may vary greatly from forecasts [e.g., COVID]. Therefore, marketing practitioners need to understand the effect/affect that emergent situational factors will have on consumers and the organisation.

We can see that situational factors have a temporal relationship – past, present, & future.

  • Past situational factors are collected and analysed and could be described as historical marketing data
  • Present situational factors are collected and analysed and could be described as current marketing data
  • Future situational factors
    • Data that is anticipated/expected in the next planning cycle is often described as forecasted marketing data
    • Data as it develops is could be described as emergent marketing data.

Each data type is important; historical and current data may indicate consumption patterns, trends and the effectiveness of past and present strategies. After analysing the historical and current data the organisation may be able to forecast/predict the likely situational factors they will face in the next planning cycle. The forecasted marketing data is important as the marketing plan and marketing action plans are designed and developed with these conditions in mind. The emergent marketing data is important as any variations from forecasts will need to be evaluated and managed to ensure that the organisation meets the financial, strategic, and communication marketing objectives of the organisation.

The literature on situational factors reveals that situational factors can be organised into 4 broad categories: The characteristics of the Customer <> Organisation <> Market <> Product.

The acronym COMP is employed to enhance recall, however, the acronym does not indicate a hierarchy of importance or an order What is interesting is that consumers and organisation will experience similar market conditions, nevertheless, they will perceive the COMP factors through their own eyes. COMP factors provide context to past and future performance [and guidance] and are the foundation of all marketing planning.

Later we will differentiate marketing practitioners as strategic marketing practitioners and tactical marketing practitioners, and explore how they employ historic, current, forecasted and emergent COMP factors during the CADDIE business-marketing planning process.

Marketing practitioners, particularly in larger organisation often ‘drill-down’ to measure strategic and tactical performance indicators; textbook generally refer to these as marketing metrics [and in recent years as marketing analytics to indicate that the metrics will be analysed]. In particular, tactical marketing practitioners measure and manage their specific areas that contribute to the strategic marketing objectives of the organisation. Marketing metrics will vary according to the  COMP factors and the marketing objectives.

Marketing practitioners are constantly collecting, storing, and accessing data; for ‘simplicity’, the place of storage and the facilitating and enabling service the software performs will be referred within this e-book as software for marketing practitioners [SfMP].

The key takeaway is that COMP can also be viewed as a method to collect, organise, access, analyse, and present data during the CADDIE business-marketing planning process. This process is a regular event in most larger organisations, however, many small and medium organisations would benefit from a more rigorous business-marketing planning process.

Therefore, we can conclude that a marketing audit of COMP factors provides the strategic and tactical  context in which past and future performance can be measured and managed. For example – imagine if when reviewing an historical sales metrics we noticed that 2 years ago there was a sharp drop in sales of a particular product. When this data is investigated further, we discover that sales were impacted by severe bushfires. Context is important as all data is relevant within the context of the situation.

Q: What is the CADDIE business-marketing planning process?

The acronym and mnemonic of CADDIE is employed simply to aid recall of the steps involved in the business-marketing planning process. We refer to this process as the CADDIE business-marketing planning process. Let’s explode the CADDIE acronym/mnemonic:

C – collect historical and current customer, organisation, market, and product [COMP] data

A – analyse the collected historical and current COMP data

D – forecast COMP factors – design appropriate objectives

D – develop the appropriate marketing plan and marketing action plans

I – implement the tactics outlined in the marketing action plans

E – evaluate the emergent COMP data and take corrective actions.

As you can see marketing is an iterative process of working with historic, current, forecasted and emergent COMP data to meet the objectives articulated in the business plan, described in the marketing plan, and specified in the marketing action plans.

Q: Do marketing practitioners have common objectives?

Although every organisation is unique, however, after a literature review, a list of common  objectives of marketing practitioners emerged. Then, after a process of analysis and synthesis, 9 objectives of marketing practitioners were identified.

Then, after further analysis and synthesis each objective was then categorised into one of three primary objective categories – financial, strategic, and communication. These will be discussed in more detail throughout the e-book. In fact, as you progress through the e-book, it will become apparent that every discussion within the e-book is in some way directed towards the achievement of the 9 objectives of marketing practitioners. Although sometimes marketing effort may be directed towards one of the 9 objectives, more often marketing effort will be directed towards two or more objectives, and in some instances marketing effort will be directed towards all of the 9 objectives. Therefore, the 9 objectives of marketing practitioners should be considered as co-dependent objectives.


Q: Does the e-book have a structure?

With the parameters of the e-book established, the next task was to design and develop a structure that would enable the content to be presented in a logical and sequential manner. Therefore, the marketing concept [e-book] would need to introduce the marketing concept, outline a marketing philosophy, detail the objectives of marketing practitioners, explore marketing theory in detail, and then outline how a marketing philosophy and marketing theory could be applied within an organisation.

After consideration a 3-section structure emerged as the preferred option. This would enable students to complete sections 1&2 in their introductory marketing unit and to complete section 2&3 in the capstone marketing unit. Importantly, it would enable former students and marketing practitioners to have one comprehensive and seamless marketing reference.

The 3 sections are:

  1. Marketing philosophy
  2. Marketing theory
  3. Marketing application

Figure 1: The 3 sections within the e-book.

Section 1: Marketing philosophy: The marketing philosophy section is organised into 3 modules:

  • Marketing definitions
  • Evolution of marketing
  • Marketing objectives

This section outlines the philosophy that underpins how marketing practitioners consider the situational factors facing their organisation. The philosophy section begins with the recognition of the marketing concept as an axiom of business. The marketing concept is based on the premise that organisations that best satisfy their customers’ needs are best placed to satisfy their own needs. In section one we explore how markets and society have evolved. Although the evolution explores the past, the takeaway message is that the marketing concept has and will be the quest for best satisfying products.

The e-book presents the view that in marketing there is no ‘one right way’ – there are always situational factors – therefore, organisational success is contingent on how well the situational factors are considered and managed. This highlights that although many organisations adopt the marketing concept, they must analyse the situational factors they encounter and then design and develop a philosophy to achieve the values embedded within the marketing concept. Therefore, organisations will design and develop a marketing philosophy that is unique to their situational factors [COMP].

Designing and developing the right marketing philosophy is critical as, in time, the marketing philosophy is cemented as an organisational culture and ultimately forms a brand identity. As we progress through section 1, we will discover how a marketing philosophy differs from other business philosophies.

Section 2: Marketing theory: This section organises the giga, mega, and milli marketing concepts. The marketing concept is regarded as the giga-marketing concept as it spans the entire e-book, the marketing concept is then divided into 3 mega-marketing concepts; each discussed in a module.

The marketing theory section is organised into 3 modules:

  • The buyer decision process
  • The total product
  • The circle of satisfaction

The objective of grouping information into 3 mega-marketing concepts is to enable students to better understand the hierarchy, roles and relationships between concepts. This grouping was chosen to provide efficient searching and effective recalling of information.

The first mega-marketing concept ‘the buyer decision process’ unpacks the consumer’s journey through the 3-time zones of the buyer decision process. This is a process where consumers are transformed into customers. The buyer decision explores the decisions and the decision-making rules that people make during the buying and consumption process. The buyer decision process will vary according to situational factors and the degree of involvement is discuss; for example, selecting a snack bar at a convenience store will take a short time, whereas selecting a motor car will take considerably longer.

The second mega-marketing concept ‘the total product’ discusses the P in the COMP factors and is directed towards the strategic objectives of product leadership and operational excellence. Although, the total product spans all 3-time zones of the buyer decision process, there is more emphasis on the 2nd time zone – ‘the product delivery time zone’.

The third mega-marketing concept ‘the circle of satisfaction’ is a bridge that spans the buyer decision process and the total product. The circle of satisfaction details the interactions between the customer and the organisation during the buyer decision process. From an organisational perspective the circle of satisfaction outlines the steps to assist marketing practitioners to achieve the 9 key marketing objectives and cultivate a competitive advantage.

Section 3: Marketing application: This section outlines how an organisation plans and goes to market with the intent of gaining a competitive advantage.

The marketing application section is organised into 3 modules:

  • The CADDIE process: collect and analyse
  • The CADDIE process: design and develop
  • The CADDIE process: implement and evaluate

The marketing philosophy discussed in section 1 and the marketing theory discussed in section 2 provides an overview of what and how marketing practitioners think. The theory discussed in section 2 provides an insight into customer decision-making. Section 3 outlines how this theory is applied to organisational decision-making process – through the CADDIE business-marketing planning process.

It is perhaps stating the obvious, but worth emphasising that understanding and applying marketing theory will enable marketing practitioners to analyse the situational factors, design and develop a marketing plan, implement the marketing plan through a series of marketing action plans and then implement evaluate and control the marketing activities to achieve organisation’s financial, strategic, and communication objectives.

Q: What is a tradigital approach to marketing?

Tradigital is simply an amalgam of traditional and digital. What this means is that as a marketer you need to employ the best combination of tools to achieve the organisation’s objectives. Sometimes, this is referred to as an omni-channel approach.

Q: What does the number behind some of the words represent?

The number is to indicate that there are different dimensions, for example, total profits4 or relationships4 indicate that there are 4 dimensions to profit. Values1, values2, or values3 indicates that there are 3 different types of value and the number indicates which one we are talking about at a particular point.


Q: What do you call marketing communication that is directed towards employees?

Marketing communication is often discussed as ‘internal’ marketing communication and ‘external’ marketing communication. When the audience of the message is internal this is referred to as ‘internal marketing communication.

  • Internal marketing communication: is communication that is directed within the organisation. Often this is referred to as ‘internal and channel marketing’ as, increasingly, channel partners are involved in the production or delivery of the product. The objective of internal and channel marketing is to communicate the marketing philosophy and to nurture the corporate culture, and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of marketplace behaviour. Internal marketing is also referred to as internal integration – where training is conducted to ensure that cross-functional teams collaborate and work towards organisational objectives.
  • External marketing communication: is communication that is directed outside of the organisation. The objective of external marketing communication is to efficiently and effectively communicate the unique product value proposition to generate awareness/attention, interest, desire, and an exchange.

Marketing (both internal and external) is about achieving organisational objectives – it is about evidence-based decisions; what markets to enter, what products to offer, what pricing strategies to adopt, and then how to communicate value to consumers, customers, staff, and channel partners.

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